Mongolia is the 19th largest and the most sparsely populated independent country in the world. The predominant religion in Mongolia is Tibetan Buddhism. Islam is the dominant religion among ethnic Kazakhs. Mongolia is a parliamentary republic. The president is directly elected. The people also elect the deputies in the national assembly, the State Great Khural, which chooses the prime minister, who nominates the Cabinet in consultation with the president. Mongolia is also known as the "Land of the horse" and "Steppe Mongolia" and Mongols have a reputation for being the best horsemen on Earth.
Nature: The geography of Mongolia is varied, with the Gobi Desert to the south and with cold and mountainous regions to the north and west. Much of Mongolia consists of steppes, with forested areas comprising 11.2% of the total land area. The highest point in Mongolia is the Khuiten Peak. The basin of the Uvs Lake, shared with Tuva Republic in Russia, is a natural World Heritage Site. There are several hundred lakes in the country and numerous rivers, of which the Orkhon is the longest at 1,124km. The Khangai Mountains play a certain role in forming this microclimate. . A unique microclimate is the fertile grassland-forest region of central and eastern Arkhangai Province and northern Ovorkhangai Province. The country is drained by numerous rivers, including the Hovd, Onon, Selenga, and Tula. Much of the Gobi Desert falls within Mongolia.
Geography: Mongolia lies in central Asia between Siberia on the north and China on the south. It is slightly larger than Alaska. It is border with the Russian Federation in the north and a 4,670km (2,902-mile) border with China in the south. From north to south, it can be divided into four areas: mountain-forest steppe, mountain steppe and, in the extreme south, semi-desert and desert (the latter being about 3% of the entire territory). The majority of the country has a high elevation, with the principal mountains concentrated in the west.
Capital city: Ulan Bator is the capital and the largest city of Mongolia. The city was founded in 1639 as a movable Buddhist monastic centre. Ulan Bator grew into a major manufacturing centre Ulan Bator has been given numerous names in its history. When the city became the capital of the new Mongolian People's Republic in 1924, its name was changed to Ulan Bator. The city is chilly, dry and remote city has had numerous names throughout its history and was renamed. For a long time in a state of disrepair because under Communist rule funds weren’t spent on repairs, the architecture is dull, there is rubble lining some of the streets and the transportation is dated - but the history is rich and colourful. is the main street and it stretches from east to west through the center. Peace Avenue It's the main shopping street and many of the restaurants are along it. The street also passes by the southern edge of the central square, Sukhbaatar Square are the main tourist attraction of the country.
Flora and Fauna: The wildlife flourishes in Mongolia despite an extreme climate, the nomadic fondness for hunting, the communist persecution of Buddhists who had set aside areas as animal sanctuaries, and a penniless government, which lacks resources to police nature protection laws. Mongolia is home to over 400 species of birds. In the desert you may see the desert warbler, houbara bustard and saxaul sparrow, as well as sand grouse, finch and the cinereous vulture. According to conservationists, 28 species of mammals are endangered. The more commonly known species are the wild ass, wild camel, Gobi argali sheep, Gobi bear, ibex and the black-tailed gazelle; others include otters, wolves, antelopes and jerboas. The area around Bog khan Uul mountain, near Ulaanbaatar, was protected from hunting and logging as early as the 12th century, and was officially designated as a national park over 200 years ago.
Tourisms: Mongolia's vast areas of wilderness, from the sprawling Gobi desert to the snow peaked mountains of the Bayan-Olgi, offer plenty of scope for adventurous outdoor enthusiasts. Fishing, jeep tours, horse and camel riding, mountain biking and birdwatching Ulaanbaatar is fast transforming itself into a modern city with international restaurants, luxury hotels, shopping malls and glass tower blocks - a sure sign of Mongolia's status as an up-and-coming Asian travel hotspot. Transporting their goods by camel and residing in portable felt and canvas tents, the nomadic lifestyle of modern-day Mongolia would still be recognisable to Ghengis Khan, the most famous Mongol of them all. The main festival is world-famous Naadam, which has been organised for centuries and is held on July 11 to July 13 in honor of the Democratic Revolution. Naadam consists of three Mongolian traditional sports: archery, long-distance horse-racing, and Mongolian wrestling.
Shopping and Nightlife: The notorious Naran Market on the outskirts of Ulaanbaatar is a large, crowded flea market which sells a huge variety of items. Suitable for the adventurous traveller, it is patronised mainly by local people. Ulaanbaatar is well-endowed with antique stores and souvenir shops. Best buys include landscape paintings, cashmere garments, camel-wool blankets, national costumes, boots, jewellery, carpets, books and handicrafts. Nightlife in Mongolia is varied, with evening performances at the State Opera and Ballet Theatre, State Drama Theatre and Puppet Theatre. The Moonstone Song & Dance Ensemble perform at Tsuki House. Ulaanbaatar is teeming with bars, discos and restaurants. The best places to hear live music are River Sounds (Choidog Street) and Grand Khaan Irish Pub (Seoul Street).